A coward is incapable of exhibiting love; it is the prerogative of the brave.
~ Mahatma Gandhi
“Wherever the deaf have received an education the method by which it is imparted is the burning question of the day with them, for the deaf are what their schooling make them more than any other class of humans. They are facing not a theory but a condition, for they are first, last, and all the time the people of the eye.”
~ George Veditz, 1910
Peaceful Civil Disobedience works
Soul Force / Truth Force ROCKS and ROLLS and RUMBLES and… soars
it truly does – dont believe me? just check out the ouster in Egypt! (see video below of Deaf Egyptians peacefully protesting) – who knows what will come of it now with the military in power but how the Prez got the boot was by the folks finding their roots
so which way is the pendulum gonna swing this time around for Deaf education.
– towards justice or injustice – quality or inquality – humanity or inhumaneness?
Lets just review where we been so far so we know how we got to where we is now and we can STAND and work to be change agents for the greater good.
Deaf Ed TIME (keeps on slippin’ or they are a changing?) line:
(let me know of any errors or things u feel should be added. Its not comprehensive – but rather singles out the pattern of oppression and resistance)
In the Beginning - pockets of Deaf w / Natural Sign Language communities here and there
educating Deaf kids (usually from wealthy families) – largely tied to clergy or religious institutions – some with sign and/or fingerspelling some without
1760 Institut National de Jeunes Sourds de Paris founded - uses signed systems to teach French as well as content areas – later used French Sign Language (LSF) and a bilingual-bicultural approach
1817 American School for the Deaf founded by Thomas Gallaudet and Laurent Clerc (and other benefactors) – American Sign Language is born out of LSF, Martha Vineyard’s Sign Language, Native American Sign Language, and home signs
Many Schools for the Deaf established in the US – many of them have Deaf superintendents and Deaf teachers and utilize sign language and English.
1880 ICED Milan Congress - beginning of 130 years of the belief and practice of Oral / Aural as being the superior method of teaching Deaf children.
The Dark Ages of Deaf Education – The Campaign against Natural Signed Languages Reigned Supreme
Pockets of resistance to the inhumanity of oralism – see Veditz, McGregor, and Hotchkiss 1913 films from the NAD Motion Picture project (1910-1920)
Almost all the education in the U.S. is under the pure oralism method (fingerspelling allowed in a few schools)
Deaf children are physically punished for signing and/or physically coerced to be oral / aural-only. Parents are instructed not to sign with their children at home.
almost a century under Oral / Aural-only rule…
1964 Babbidge Congressional Report calls Oralism (oral-aural-only) a dismal failure.
1960s-1970s American Sign Language is documented and validated as a real language.
1970 Auditory Verbal Therapy established oral / aural-only therapy that excluded the use of signing and lipreading in a effort to augment Deaf children’s listening and speaking skills only.
1970s Total communication (a philosophy of whatever it takes / anything goes) is introduced to Deaf education as a way for allowing some form of signing back into the classroom.
1975 PL 94-142 (now known as IDEA) Mainstreaming Mandate is passed. Get ye with wee ears to the public schools – like it or not we dont care. We want to be fair by making u sink or swim so there, there. Off ya go.
1970s – 1980s Numerous sign systems are invented – SEE I, SEE II, LOVE, Signed English, Simultaneous-Communication (sim-com, basically signs supporting spoken English)
Mid 1980s Commission on the Education of the Deaf (COED) states that mainstreaming and Total Communication are not consistently effective and many kids are drowning in the mainstream
All the kings horse and all the kings men (signed systems, interpreters, notetakers, paraprofessionals, FM systems etc etc) aint putting the kids back together so good
Deaf schools down size due to the mass migration to the mainstream and thus the Deaf schools are perceived to be Last Resorts and “dumping grounds” for students that districts dont want to deal with.
1980s Cochlear Implant companies and surgeons getting busy with with single channel implanting.
“Although there a many reasons why cochlear implants have become as successful as they are in helping deaf people with profound hearing loss to hear sound, it is the courage and commitment of a small group of clinicians and parents of deaf children who were instrumental in the eventual success of this technology for children,” continued Eisenberg, who was an audiologist on the first pediatric cochlear implant team in 1980.
[NOTE: the omission of any mention of the courage of the Deaf children themselves]
1988 Deaf President Now – peaceful protest at Gallaudet University for a Deaf president after 124 yrs of Hearing presidents. Hailed as a Civil rights movement by Dr. I King Jordan, who became the first Deaf president of Gallaudet as a result of the protest.
1998 Early Hearing Detection Intervention (EHDI) begins
1990 Americans with Disabilities Act passed and signed into law by George Bush Sr
1990s-now Cochlear Implant revolution contrary to concerns raised re: ethics, consent, safety, language and cultural development
1990 the FDA lowered the approved age for implantation to two years
1998 the FDA lowered the approved age to 18 months
2000 the FDA lowered the approved age to 12 months
(note: some Drs are doing bilateral implant surgeries as young as 6 mo in the US)
1990s-2000s – early implantation, AVT, mainstreaming boom, option schools pop up, Deaf schools downsized, threatened, and closed
2000s – numerous recalls of various Cochlear Implants due to safety issues (recalls mostly of Advanced Bionics CI products).
2003-2006 Death from meningitis that developed post-Cochlear Implant surgery in patients with the Advanced Bionics CIs with a positioner. Product recalled and meningitis vaccinations strongly urged.
200os Deafhood and Deaf Gain concepts introduced, video phone, blog/vlogsphere and Deaf cinema booms, media in the hands of Deaf folks, etc
Spring + Fall 2006 Unity for Gallaudet Protest
2007 Gallaudet Unversity officially goes bilingual-bicultural
April 2008 A G Bell’s Pepsi letter stating “…we would be remiss if we did not call your attention to the fact that your advertisement offers a limited view of the deaf community.”
And went on to say:
Your advertisement perpetuates a common myth that all people who are deaf can only communicate using sign language and are, therefore, isolated from the rest of society. In fact, today’s hearing technology, coupled with early screening identification and intervention, has led to incredible advances in listening and spoken language skill development.
In addition to AG Bell’s own members, NAD and DBC wrote letters expressing their discontent with the AG Bell letter to Pepsi. AG Bell refused to retract the letter.
Spring 2008 The Deaf Bilingual Coalition announces rally and free conference in Milwaukee, Wisc at the same time as the AG Bell Conference
June 11, 2008 AG Bell Association releases a position paper on American Sign Language, where they validate some old news – “AG Bell acknowledges ASL as a language in and of itself.”
Yep there is only about 1 paragraph out of 7 that really talks about American Sign Language – the rest is spin and pumping up their oral-aural onlyness. it is basically a Position Statement that says – “We here at AG Bell tolerate ASL by those who subscribe to that thar “culture” and “different” grammar etc but look over here at what WE do with English and mouths and ears dear parents. this position statement was the handy work of the handy Catherine Murphy who is now the PR person at Gallaudet.
June 27-30, 2008 DBC conference and peaceful rally and march across from AG Bell conference.
July 2008 FDA wins settlement against Advanced Bionics for $1.1 million and fines their CEO $75,000 for faulty CI (moisture leak causing intermittent shocks)
Feb 2009 NAD announces budget threats to Deaf Schools
April 2-3, 2009 Audism Free America historic rally and meeting with the CEO of AG Bell Association, Alexander Graham, AG Bell communication director, Catherine Murphy, and three other representatives of AG Bell to discuss the three AFA demands.
Nov 2009 AG Bell Academy votes to change the Auditory-Verbal Therapy principle #3:
3. Guide and coach parents to help their child use hearing as the primary sensory modality in developing listening and (added) spoken language
without the use of sign language or emphasis on lipreading.
May 2010 NAD position on Deaf Schools
June 2009 Dept of Justice fines Cochlear Americas $880,000 for kick backs & fraud.
2010 AG Bell pulls the Advanced Bionics Banner from its website but keeps up their Circle Alliance Founding Partners (Advanced Bionics and Cochlear Americas logos)
Spring – Fall 2010 CA proposes AB 2072 - bill proposed to mandate that parents go to an audiologist to receive a brochure listing various options including pure oral / aural only. Bill sponsored by pro-oralism organizations and medical professions, bill opposed by grassroots Deaf bilingual-bicultural organizations and individuals.
July 2010 ICED Vancouver New Era agreement – oral / aural-only mandate (ICED 1880 Milan) declared to be wrong and apologized for. New principles of accord for our future established. “Nothing about us, without us” and no denying a natural and fully accessible signed language to Deaf children (WFD, UN – CRPD, ICED 2010)
Sept 29, 2010 Governor Schwarzenegger vetoes AB 2072 - ie the Yellow Shirts win.
Nov 2010 Sovona Advanced Bionics recalls its HiRes 90K Cochlear Implant and closes down production and implanting due to some internal CIs failing hot.
2011 AG Bell pulls its Circle Alliance Founding Partnerships (Cochlear Americas and Advanced Bionics) from its website
Sept 2011 Cochlear implants in the news
COCHLEAR co. recalls its CI500 range cochlear implants – shares plummet overnight
MED-EL announces its new super small cochlear implants approved for U.S. markets
Advanced Bionics announces it had FDA re-approval to market its Hi-Res 90K cochlear implants in the U.S.
link to entry that has links to both MED-EL and AB press releases which went out on the same days as COCHLEAR released the news of its recall – interesting, eh?
2011 and beyond –
- more Deaf schools closing vs more Deaf programs going bilingual-bicultural (or multi)?
- more technology to make Deaf folks undeaf vs lessdeaf or semideaf or more acceptance, tolerance, appreciation and LOVE?
- more signed systems and codes and tower of babel vs more recognition, appreciation, celebration, and expansion of ASL?
Fear and Cowardness vs. Love and Braveness
Fear is not a disease of the body; fear kills the soul. ~ Gandhi
Live as if you were to die tomorrow. Learn as if you were to live forever. ~ Gandhi
I hope you will cherish and defend our beautiful sign language as the noblest gift God gave to the Deaf. ~ George Veditz
What’s it gonna be, folks????
– our future is in our hands
1 2 3 push and jump
or sit spin and stand by
NOTE: updated 2/14/2011 to include AB 2072 and Cochlear implant suits and recalls
NOTE: updated 2/16/2011 – title change to include “Deaf Ed timeline…” and AVT guideline #3 moved from 2010 to Nov 2009
Civil Disobedience rocks
Video from Mostafa Emil
Happy Valentines Day ya all.
I love ya.
me first vlog (NOV 2007) re: love vs. fear and standing up instead of standing by