Deaf Ed timeline – Love vs Fear / Bravery vs Cowardness

Ya Basta = "enuf is enuf" image from

A coward is incapable of exhibiting love; it is the prerogative of the brave.

~ Mahatma Gandhi

“Wherever the deaf have received an education the method by which it is imparted is the burning question of the day with them, for the deaf are what their schooling make them more than any other class of humans. They are facing not a theory but a condition, for they are first, last, and all the time the people of the eye.”

~ George Veditz,  1910

Peaceful Civil Disobedience works

Soul Force / Truth Force ROCKS and ROLLS and RUMBLES and… soars

it truly does – dont believe me?  just check out the ouster in Egypt! (see video below of Deaf Egyptians peacefully protesting) – who knows what will come of it now with the military in power but how the Prez got the boot was by the folks finding their roots

so which way is the pendulum gonna swing this time around for Deaf education.

– towards justice or injustice – quality or inquality – humanity or inhumaneness?

Lets just review where we been so far so we know how we got to where we is now and we can STAND and work to be change agents for the greater good.

Deaf Ed TIME (keeps on slippin’ or they are a changing?) line:

(let me know of any errors or things u feel should be added.  Its not comprehensive – but rather singles out the pattern of oppression and resistance)

In the Beginning – pockets of Deaf w / Natural Sign Language communities here and there

educating Deaf kids (usually from wealthy families) –  largely tied to clergy or religious institutions – some with sign and/or fingerspelling some without

1760 Institut National de Jeunes Sourds de Paris founded – uses signed systems to teach French as well as content areas – later used French Sign Language (LSF) and a bilingual-bicultural approach

1817 American School for the Deaf founded by Thomas Gallaudet and Laurent Clerc (and other benefactors) – American Sign Language is born out of LSF, Martha Vineyard’s Sign Language, Native American Sign Language, and home signs

Many Schools for the Deaf established in the US – many of them have Deaf superintendents and Deaf teachers and utilize sign language and English.

1880 ICED Milan Congress – beginning of 130 years of the belief and practice of Oral / Aural as being the superior method of teaching Deaf children.

The Dark Ages of Deaf Education – The Campaign against Natural Signed Languages Reigned Supreme

Pockets of resistance to the inhumanity of oralism – see Veditz, McGregor, and Hotchkiss 1913 films from the NAD Motion Picture project (1910-1920)

Almost all the education in the U.S. is under the pure oralism method (fingerspelling allowed in a few schools)

Deaf children are physically punished for signing and/or physically coerced to be oral / aural-only.  Parents are instructed not to sign with their children at home.

almost a century under Oral / Aural-only rule…

1964 Babbidge Congressional Report calls Oralism (oral-aural-only) a dismal failure.

1960s-1970s American Sign Language is documented and validated as a real language.

1970 Auditory Verbal Therapy established oral / aural-only therapy that excluded the use of signing and lipreading in a effort to augment Deaf children’s listening and speaking skills only.

1970s Total communication (a philosophy of whatever it takes / anything goes) is introduced to Deaf education as a way for allowing some form of signing back into the classroom.

1975 PL 94-142 (now known as IDEA) Mainstreaming Mandate is passed.  Get ye with wee ears to the public schools – like it or not we dont care.  We want to be fair by making u sink or swim so there, there.  Off ya go.

1970s – 1980s Numerous sign systems are invented – SEE I, SEE II, LOVE, Signed English, Simultaneous-Communication (sim-com, basically signs supporting spoken English)

Mid 1980s Commission on the Education of the Deaf (COED) states that mainstreaming and Total Communication are not consistently effective and many kids are drowning in the mainstream

All the kings horse and all the kings men (signed systems, interpreters, notetakers, paraprofessionals, FM systems etc etc) aint putting the kids back together so good

Deaf schools down size due to the mass migration to the mainstream and thus the Deaf schools are perceived to be Last Resorts and “dumping grounds” for students that districts dont want to deal with.

1980s Cochlear Implant companies and surgeons getting busy with with single channel implanting.

“Although there a many reasons why cochlear implants have become as successful as they are in helping deaf people with profound hearing loss to hear sound, it is the courage and commitment of a small group of clinicians and parents of deaf children who were instrumental in the eventual success of this technology for children,” continued Eisenberg, who was an audiologist on the first pediatric cochlear implant team in 1980.

[NOTE: the omission of any mention of the courage of the Deaf children themselves]

1988 Deaf President Now – peaceful protest at Gallaudet University for a Deaf president after 124 yrs of Hearing presidents.  Hailed as a Civil rights movement by Dr. I King Jordan, who became the first Deaf president of Gallaudet as a result of the protest.

1998 Early Hearing Detection Intervention (EHDI) begins

1990 Americans with Disabilities Act passed and signed into law by George Bush Sr

1990s-now Cochlear Implant revolution contrary to concerns raised re: ethics, consent, safety, language and cultural development

1990 the FDA lowered the approved age for implantation to two years

1998 the FDA lowered the approved age to 18 months

2000 the FDA lowered the approved age to 12 months

(note: some Drs are doing bilateral implant surgeries as young as 6 mo in the US)

1990s-2000s – early implantation, AVT, mainstreaming boom, option schools pop up, Deaf schools downsized, threatened, and closed

2000s – numerous recalls of various Cochlear Implants due to safety issues (recalls mostly of Advanced Bionics CI products).

2003-2006 Death from meningitis that developed post-Cochlear Implant surgery in patients with the Advanced Bionics CIs with a positioner.  Product recalled and meningitis vaccinations strongly urged.

200os Deafhood and Deaf Gain concepts introduced, video phone, blog/vlogsphere and Deaf cinema booms, media in the hands of Deaf folks, etc

Spring + Fall 2006 Unity for Gallaudet Protest

2007 Gallaudet Unversity officially goes bilingual-bicultural

April 2008 A G Bell’s  Pepsi letter stating “…we would be remiss if we did not call your attention to the fact that your advertisement offers a limited view of the deaf community.”

And went on to say:

Your advertisement perpetuates a common myth that all people who are deaf can only communicate using sign language and are, therefore, isolated from the rest of society. In fact, today’s hearing technology, coupled with early screening identification and intervention, has led to incredible advances in listening and spoken language skill development.

In addition to AG Bell’s own members, NAD and DBC wrote letters expressing their discontent with the AG Bell letter to Pepsi.  AG Bell refused to retract the letter.

Spring 2008 The Deaf Bilingual Coalition announces rally and free conference in Milwaukee, Wisc at the same time as the AG Bell Conference

June 11, 2008 AG Bell Association releases a position paper on American Sign Language, where they validate some old news – “AG Bell acknowledges ASL as a language in and of itself.”

Yep there is only about 1 paragraph out of 7 that really talks about American Sign Language – the rest is spin and pumping up their oral-aural onlyness.  it is basically a Position Statement that says – “We here at AG Bell tolerate ASL by those who subscribe to that thar “culture” and “different” grammar etc but look over here at what WE do with English and mouths and ears dear parents.  this position statement was the handy work of the handy Catherine Murphy who is now the PR person at Gallaudet.

June 27-30, 2008 DBC conference and peaceful rally and march across from AG Bell conference.

July 2008 FDA wins settlement against Advanced Bionics for $1.1 million and fines their CEO $75,000 for faulty CI (moisture leak causing intermittent shocks)

Feb 2009 NAD announces budget threats to Deaf Schools

April 2-3, 2009 Audism Free America historic rally and meeting with the CEO of AG Bell Association, Alexander Graham, AG Bell communication director, Catherine Murphy, and three other representatives of AG Bell to discuss the three AFA demands.

Nov 2009 AG Bell Academy votes to change the Auditory-Verbal Therapy principle #3:

3. Guide and coach parents to help their child use hearing as the primary sensory modality in developing listening and (added) spoken language without the use of sign language or emphasis on lipreading.

May 2010 NAD position on Deaf Schools

June 2009 Dept of Justice fines Cochlear Americas $880,000 for kick backs & fraud.

2010 AG Bell pulls the Advanced Bionics Banner from its website but keeps up their Circle Alliance Founding Partners (Advanced Bionics and Cochlear Americas logos)

Spring – Fall 2010 CA proposes AB 2072 – bill proposed to mandate that parents go to an audiologist to receive a brochure listing various options including pure oral / aural only.  Bill sponsored by pro-oralism organizations and medical professions, bill opposed by grassroots Deaf bilingual-bicultural organizations and individuals.

July 2010 ICED Vancouver New Era agreement – oral / aural-only mandate (ICED 1880 Milan) declared to be wrong and apologized for.  New principles of accord for our future established.  “Nothing about us, without us” and no denying a natural and fully accessible signed language to Deaf children (WFD, UN – CRPD, ICED 2010)

Sept 29, 2010 Governor Schwarzenegger vetoes AB 2072 – ie the Yellow Shirts win.

Nov 2010 Sovona Advanced Bionics recalls its HiRes 90K Cochlear Implant and closes down production and implanting due to some internal CIs failing hot.

2011 AG Bell pulls its Circle Alliance Founding Partnerships (Cochlear Americas and Advanced Bionics) from its website

Sept 2011 Cochlear implants in the news
COCHLEAR co. recalls its CI500 range cochlear implants – shares plummet overnight

MED-EL announces its new super small cochlear implants approved for U.S. markets

Advanced Bionics announces it had FDA re-approval to market its Hi-Res 90K cochlear implants in the U.S.

link to entry that has links to both MED-EL and AB press releases which went out on the same days as COCHLEAR released the news of its recall – interesting, eh?

2011 and beyond –

  • more Deaf schools closing vs more Deaf programs going bilingual-bicultural (or multi)?
  • more technology to make Deaf folks undeaf vs lessdeaf or semideaf or more acceptance, tolerance, appreciation and LOVE?
  • more signed systems and codes and tower of babel vs more recognition, appreciation, celebration, and expansion of ASL?

Fear and Cowardness vs. Love and Braveness

Fear is not a disease of the body; fear kills the soul. ~ Gandhi

Live as if you were to die tomorrow. Learn as if you were to live forever. ~ Gandhi

I hope you will cherish and defend our beautiful sign language as the noblest gift God gave to the Deaf. ~ George Veditz

What’s it gonna be, folks????

– our future is in our hands

1 2 3 push and jump

or sit spin and stand by

NOTE: updated 2/14/2011 to include AB 2072 and Cochlear implant suits and recalls

NOTE: updated 2/16/2011 – title change to include “Deaf Ed timeline…” and AVT guideline #3 moved from 2010 to Nov 2009


Civil Disobedience rocks

Video from Mostafa Emil

Happy Valentines Day ya all.

I love ya.

me first vlog (NOV 2007) re: love vs. fear and standing up instead of standing by


9 Comments (+add yours?)

  1. Dianrez
    Feb 14, 2011 @ 15:21:26

    Love ya, too, Happy Valentine’s Day to all!

    Just a note to remind y’all…While the push for mainstreaming was gaining momentum, my family re-entered the sphere of Deaf education in 1988. After much research and visiting of programs, we decided on a school for the Deaf for our Deaf baby. It was not a dumping ground, but a FIRST CHOICE. The local school board supported our decision without any problem.

    When Son began the infant program, we found nearly ALL of his classmates were Deaf of Deaf parents. The one or two that had hearing parents were from learning to sign families. The cochlear implant then was only two years old, so naturally none of us opted for it.

    Throughout Son’s years in school, we discussed the popular conjecture that in the future the school would convert to one for multiply-disabled children and all the best Deaf students would be diverted to mainstream schools. By his graduation in 2007, we didn’t see that happen, but we saw the school shrink from about 140 students to less than 100. We saw preschool classes of CI children begin. We also saw most of Son’s classmates go on to postsecondary education and become a strong voice for ASL and Deaf culture-friendly education.

    The future of comprehensive ASL education does look bleak at times with the 90 percent of hearing families as compared to 10 percent Deaf parents. Their numbers may drown out the voices for a healthier cultural and social education. The CI and AVT proponents may be as successful as earlier oralists in decimating an ASL-inclusive educational system. Where they once were successful in eliminating Deaf teachers, they may now succeed in eliminating Deaf schools.

    But remember, social movements frequently are pendulum-like in their progression. From manualism to oralism, back to awakening and ASL renaissance, then to CI-AVT; so it will ultimately return.

    In the end, it probably will hinge on the lead of the Deaf parent minority. They are the ones who personally know the weaknesses of an oralist education. Today more of them are professionals and critics of educational systems. More are linguists and social researchers. More agree that culturally-based education is more likely to foster pride and healthy discourse. Deaf parents and their Hearing allies, Hearing parent friends, and ASL-cultural students are the ones who will bring the pendulum back to a healthy equilibrium.

  2. Joseph Pietro Riolo
    Feb 14, 2011 @ 17:52:58

    Huh? Are you implying that the cochlear implant revolution is a bad thing to happen to the deaf people?

    Joseph Pietro Riolo

    Public domain notice: I put all of my expressions in this post in the public domain.

  3. handeyes
    Feb 15, 2011 @ 12:24:13

    Dianrez –
    thank u for the love ya! and happy belated Valentines day to ya

    thank you so much for all you have shared re: your experiences raising a Deaf son and your experiences w/ his Deaf school.

    I revised the blog entry above to add “perceived to be a last resort and dumping ground…”

    i know there are stellar students at Deaf schools and there are stellar teachers and programs. We also know that the local school district when they felt they could not deal with inclusion do to Deaf + etc would put them into the Deaf schools who also were not well prepare for dealing with disabilities they were unfamiliar with.

    Its important work and folks should be well trained for it and programs designed for it.



  4. handeyes
    Feb 15, 2011 @ 12:25:31

    Joseph –
    nice to see u de-lurkified.

    now to ur comment:
    Huh? are you implying that im implying something ; )

    I am listing out a series of events so we can see the patterns

    clearly the cochlear implant revolution has been bad for some Deaf people – remember the deaths?

    i know its a small number THANKFULLY but we should care about those who have gone simply because they were Deaf

    I do know that some folks love their CIs and could not live with out it. I also care about the ones who could not live because of it or those who do live but quality of life has been compromised. I also care about the BIG picture and how the P U S H for CIs has ushered back in the push for oral / aural-onlyism and mainstreaming mandates.

    visit most any website on Oral education or option schools and the stated end goal is to get the kids into public schools to behave as hearing like as possible.

    so…. im just saying Joseph –

    u may draw any conclusions about me u may desire. i know u r gonna do that regardless of what i do or fail to do.

    id rather u spent ur time drawing some conclusions about what the CI industry has been up to and what AVT and AG Bell has been up to

    i know what i have been up to – the bloody truth campaign. Ain’t easy but i been doing it. for u and urs and ours.

    Thou mayest Joseph. Thou mayest

    and happy belated valentines day



    Ya Basta, eh?

  5. DE
    Feb 16, 2011 @ 03:39:34

    Patti- truly comprehensive list here– a KEEPER and should be posted all over campuses!

  6. Joseph Pietro Riolo
    Feb 16, 2011 @ 12:33:51

    I was going to post my comment but when I re-read your comment, I noticed that the ending was changed. It now said, “Ya Basta …” Not knowing what it means, I googled on it and it means enough or “enough is enough”. I don’t know how to interpret that. Is it directed to me personally that I should not discuss any further? Or, is it directed to the technology of cochlear implant?

    Joseph Pietro Riolo

    Public domain notice: I put all of my expressions in this post in the public domain.

  7. handeyes
    Feb 16, 2011 @ 13:59:01

    Heye DE – thanks for the comment. Feel free to use as u see fit.

    Heye Joseph – Thank u for asking for clarification re: the Ya Basta

    if u look at the top entry of this blog u see the image of a hand with the words Ya Basta under it. It is a Spanish statement of “Enough is Enough” a rally call to stop oppression etc.

    i added it under my sign off because i want us to stop wasting times in a war of the words and intellect and feel with our hearts and our souls.

    I was not saying Enuf of Joseph Pietro Riolo III – i love ya. i hope u know that. we disagree on LOTS of things but i feel we can converse about them.

    My comment said what my purpose of the timeline is – to show our PROGRESS and to show our CHALLENGES

    it has been VERY hard to makes some of the invisible visible

    My signing off Ya Basta! is because for me “enough is enough” of folks covering up facts of folks denying truths of folks defending systems and companies that have caused harms.

    I am not casting a blanket saying All Everything Always – i am just putting out some facts

    and i am saying Enough is Enough of injustice, oppression, deception, misrepresentation, denial, projection, deflection, rejection, corruption, manipulation, etc etc etc

    im in a rush so im just gonna copy and paste some quotes from MLK that might help understand what i mean by Ya Basta!

    pls know i was not intending to single u out – i am speaking to all of us – myself included.

    i do again thank u for checking in and not assuming the worst.

    much love and peace,

    ya basta! ; )

    * You know my friends, there comes a time when people get tired of being trampled by the iron feet of oppression … If we are wrong, the Supreme Court of this nation is wrong. If we are wrong, the Constitution of the United States is wrong. And if we are wrong, God Almighty is wrong. If we are wrong, Jesus of Nazareth was merely a utopian dreamer that never came down to Earth. If we are wrong, justice is a lie, love has no meaning. And we are determined here in Montgomery to work and fight until “justice runs down like water, and righteousness like a mighty stream.”
    o Address to the first Montgomery Improvement Association (MIA) Mass Meeting, at Holt Street Baptist Church (5 December 1955). “Justice runs down like water, and righteousness like a mighty stream” is a quotation of Amos 5:24 in the Bible.

    * True peace is not merely the absence of tension: it is the presence of justice.
    o In a 1955 response to an accusation that he was “disturbing the peace” by his activism during the Montgomery Bus Boycott in Montgomery, Alabama, as quoted in Let the Trumpet Sound : A Life of Martin Luther King, Jr (1982) by Stephen B. Oates

    * Men often hate each other because they fear each other; they fear each other because they don’t know each other; they don’t know each other because they can not communicate; they can not communicate because they are separated.
    o Stride Toward Freedom : the Montgomery Story (1958)

    * Man is man because he is free to operate within the framework of his destiny. He is free to deliberate, to make decisions, and to choose between alternatives. He is distinguished from animals by his freedom to do evil or to do good and to walk the high road of beauty or tread the low road of ugly degeneracy.
    o The Measures of Man (1959)

    * I submit to you that if a man has not discovered something that he will die for, he isn’t fit to live.
    o Speech in Detroit, Michigan (1963-06-23)

    * There are certain things in our nation and in the world which I am proud to be maladjusted and which I hope all men of good-will will be maladjusted until the good societies realize — I say very honestly that I never intend to become adjusted to — segregation and discrimination. I never intend to become adjusted to religious bigotry. I never intend to adjust myself to economic conditions that will take necessities from the many to give luxuries to the few. I never intend to adjust myself to the madness of militarism, to self-defeating effects of physical violence. But in a day when sputniks and explorers are dashing through outer space and guided ballistic missiles are carving highways of death through the stratosphere, no nation can win a war. It is no longer the choice between violence and nonviolence. It is either nonviolence or nonexistence…
    o “Social Justice and the Emerging New Age” address at the Herman W. Read Fieldhouse, Western Michigan University, (18 December 1963)

    * I must admit that I have gone through those moments when I was greatly disappointed with the church and what it has done in this period of social change. We must face the fact that in America, the church is still the most segregated major institution in America. At 11:00 on Sunday morning when we stand and sing and Christ has no east or west, we stand at the most segregated hour in this nation. This is tragic. Nobody of honesty can overlook this. Now, I’m sure that if the church had taken a stronger stand all along, we wouldn’t have many of the problems that we have. The first way that the church can repent, the first way that it can move out into the arena of social reform is to remove the yoke of segregation from its own body. Now, I’m not saying that society must sit down and wait on a spiritual and moribund church as we’ve so often seen. I think it should have started in the church, but since it didn’t start in the church, our society needed to move on. The church, itself, will stand under the judgement of God. Now that the mistake of the past has been made, I think that the opportunity of the future is to really go out and to transform American society, and where else is there a better place than in the institution that should serve as the moral guardian of the community. The institution that should preach brotherhood and make it a reality within its own body.
    o Interview after his “Social Justice and the Emerging New Age” address at the Herman W. Read Fieldhouse, Western Michigan University, (18 December 1963)

    * A riot is the language of the unheard.
    o Address given in Birmingham, Alabama (1963-12-31)

    * The ultimate weakness of violence is that it is a descending spiral, begetting the very thing it seeks to destroy. Instead of diminishing evil, it multiplies it. Through violence you may murder the liar, but you cannot murder the lie, nor establish the truth. Through violence you may murder the hater, but you do not murder hate. In fact, violence merely increases hate. So it goes. … Returning hate for hate multiplies hate, adding deeper darkness to a night already devoid of stars. Darkness cannot drive out darkness: only light can do that. Hate cannot drive out hate: only love can do that.
    o ‘Where Do We Go From Here?” as published in Where Do We Go from Here : Chaos or Community? (1967), p. 62; many statements in this book, or slight variants of them, were also part of his address Where Do We Go From Here?” which has a section below. A common variant appearing at least as early as 1968 has “Returning violence for violence multiplies violence…” An early version of the speech as published in A Martin Luther King Treasury (1964), p. 173, has : “Returning hate for hate multiplies hate…”

    * We must live together as brothers or perish together as fools.
    o Speech in St. Louis, March 22, 1964


    there are more there so help urself folks

    spread the good stuff not the bad

  8. Joseph Pietro Riolo
    Feb 19, 2011 @ 14:24:01

    Thanks for clarification. I was embarrassed that I did not notice the poster for “Ya Basta” at the beginning of your post with the meaning of it in the caption.

    I certainly do not intend to ignore the bad things that happened relating to the technology of cochlear implant. These must be told and recorded for the posterity. However, love would require one to be fair and list the good or positive things that also happened relating to the same technology. Certainly, there are few bad or unethical players but they are not to be confused with the technology of cochlear implant by itself. (An analogy is the confusion of money by itself with the love of money as the root of all evil.)

    For sure, the technology of cochlear implant brought and continues to bring a lot of changes upon the deaf education and deaf community. It is a powerful, game-changing technology. Some of the changes are very far-reaching. Some or few deaf people and some or few parents of deaf children choose to be the change. Gandhi said something about being the change that you want to be. Some of them choose to be the changes to show that it is possible to raise a happy deaf child with the technology of cochlear implant and without the need to learn a signed language. Some of them choose to be the changes to show that it is possible to do the same with a signed language. Resisting these changes is a symptom of fear – the fear of what the changes could do to the deaf education and deaf community. That’s how I see it.

    It may look that I am discussing on the intellect level but I do touch a bit on the level of heart. I am not a fan of cochlear implant and the changes that I have been seeing do scare me at few times. I have learned that people are usually scared of changes. Some embrace the changes; others resist the changes; still others choose to go with the flow of the changes. Such is the diversity among the people.

    Joseph Pietro Riolo

    Public domain notice: I put all of my expressions in this post in the public domain.

  9. handeyes
    Feb 19, 2011 @ 16:17:26

    heye joseph

    thanks for coming back

    re: what love is and is not – may be in the eyes of the beholder

    i do not feel beholden to sing the praise of Cochlear Implants along side of the woes of CI

    what i have sought out to do and pledge myself to do is to tell the truths about CIs as i learn of them

    i do not like folks saying outlandish statements as if facts about CIs when they are falsehoods

    i do not like folks mocking ridiculing and taunting folks who have CIs

    i do not like folks mocking ridiculing and taunting folks who oppose CIs

    i do not like folks claiming that CIs have super powers and dismissing or minimizing the shortcomings, shortcircuiting, and shortfalls of CIs

    i aim for the truth

    it has not been easy

    folks r extremely passionate on both sides of the CI spectrum (pro and anti CI folks)

    most folks have personal opinions but will not share them publicly because “its sticky”

    this leads us to a metaphorical “gag order”

    this leads us to turning a blinds eye

    this leads some good folks to be misled to say false things because they believe what they were being t/sold

    not cool

    re: Change

    gandhi is quoted as saying “we must be the change we want to see in the world”

    mlk said “we must have the spiritual audacity to assert our somebodyness”

    so while it is important we accept Deaf folks with CIs we should make sure we change ourselves from being passive bystanders and step up to the plate to get answers and work to make the invisible more visible

    re: how u see it and fear

    i really appreciate what u r sharing

    i have been examining how love is often the opposite of fear and we can only overcome and challenge our fears successfully via LOVE

    i have been fearful to examine CIs (the industry, the medical profession, the choices, the AVT / Oralism that often accompanies CIs etc) for fear of hurting folks i know with CI or their parents

    i have also been fearful of the things i have learned / discovered

    it makes me feel sad that i was not braver and did not start asking questions earlier

    sometimes i worry that we have neglected the folks for whom the CI has not been a good thing

    often we do not listen to and value their stories (more and more folks are opting to undergo removal of the CI)

    there are folks who are “successful” CI users but still resent that their parents never learned to sign or when they go home as adults they are not allowed to use sign language

    we need the whole truth out

    as gandhi said “When I despair, I remember that all through history the way of truth and love has always won.”

    thank u again for sharing your POV on this topic



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